WKOB3b - Small-scale fisheries and MPAs/fishery reserves: how to achieve successful management and sustainable livelihoods

30 november - 14:30 / 18:00 in room Maroc 1

Organisers: GFCM

Moderators: Abdellah Srour, GFCM Executive Secretary and Lena Westlund, FAO/GFCM

Session overview:

This workshop will discuss MPAs, fishery reserves and other similar closures in relation to small-scale fisheries. The session will refer to the outcomes of the Regional Conference on Building a future for sustainable small-scale fisheries in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea held in Algeria earlier this year and to the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines). The session will present examples of fisheries management and development approaches within MPAs/fishery reserves and discuss best practices, challenges and opportunities for successful management and sustainable small-scale fisheries livelihoods.
 It is expected that the session will develop conclusions and recommendations that support the implementation of the “Roadmap”, in particular its strategic objective 3 with regard to better integration between fisheries and MPA management and enhanced participation of fishers and fish workers in MPA-related decision-making processes. The session will also strengthen policy coherence by making linkages between the work by the GFCM, including with regard to the SSF Guidelines, and the “Roadmap”.

INTRODUCTION:

GFCM achievements in promoting sustainable small-scale fisheries
Speaker: Abdellah Srour, GFCM Executive Secretary
Recent work of the GFCM has placed strong emphasis on promoting sustainable small-scale fisheries (SSF). To this end, the GFCM has held two major meetings on SSF in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea: a First Regional Symposium (Malta, 2013) and a follow-up Regional Conference (Algeria, 2016), both of which also addressed MPAs in the context of SSF. Emanating from the conference conclusions, a resolution was adopted by the Commission in 2016 on sustainable SSF and a special work programme was established. Furthermore, in the recently adopted mid-term strategy (2017-2020) towards the sustainability of Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries, SSF and the use of spatial closures feature prominently.  

INTRODUCTION:

Small-scale fisheries and MPAs
Speaker: Lena Westlund, FAO/GFCM consultant
There are a number of different types of closures – not only MPAs – for biodiversity and fisheries management purposes of relevance to small-scale fisheries, including fisheries restricted areas (FRAs). It is now commonly recognised that fishing communities and other stakeholders need to be part of decision-making and implementation to make them effective. The importance of ensuring participatory and integrated approaches are fundamental principles of the Voluntary Guidelines for Securing Sustainable Small-Scale Fisheries in the Context of Food Security and Poverty Eradication (SSF Guidelines).There is a need to share good practices and discuss challenges and opportunities for how community and stakeholder participation can contribute to the implementation of the ‘Roadmap’ and the creation of equitable benefits in line with its objective 3.

CASE STUDY:

Successful small-scale fisheries management in MPAs/fishery closures – examples of the Gulf of Castellammare and Egadi Islands (Sicily)
Speaker:  Tomas VEGA, CNR, Italy
Fishery closures and MPAs are particular cases of marine spatial planning. As such, fishery closures and MPAs should contribute to the sustainable use of goods and services provided by marine ecosystems, while preserving their integrity in the face of uncertainty. Here, the ecological and socio-economic performance of a Sicilian fishery closure located in the Gulf of Castellammare is presented. Biomasses of depleted stocks re-built after 10 years, and employment and revenues of artisanal fisheries were maintained. Governance issues involved in the management of trawling and artisanal fisheries are further illustrated by a study in the Egadi MPA.

CASE STUDY:

 Towards successful fisheries management and sustainable livelihoods: A case of Small-Scale Fisheries in Gökova Bay MPA, Turkey
Speaker:  Vahdet UNAL, Ege University, Turkey
Gökova was declared as a MPA in 1988. However, this did not prevent overexploitation, illegal fishing or a decrease in fishing income. Fishers had one of the worst years in 2009, with a fourth of the grouper landings of 2006 and a disappearance of the karamote prawn (Penaeus kerathurus). In 2010, after consultation with stakeholders, six No Fishing Zones (NFZs) were established. Two years later, a marine ranger and patrolling system was introduced. After five years of protection, we noticed a great success through increased protection, catches and fishing income. Today (2015), the volume of landings has increased by 82% compared to 2009 while the value of catches has increased by 33%. In conclusion, an MPA with NFZs and strong enforcement created benefits for SSF while protecting resources in Gökova. The success was the result of a) collaboration between fishers and stakeholders, b) using traditional knowledge besides scientific information, c) informing fishers on the results of research.

CASE STUDY:

A fishers’ perspective
Speakers:  Can GORGUN, Akyaka Fishery Cooperative in Gokova - Zafer Kızılkaya, Mediterranean Conservation Society
I have been fishing at Gökova Bay for 38 years and for 18 years I have been the head of the Akyaka Fishery Cooperative. Twenty years ago, there were less active fishers and we were catching more fish. Our biggest source of income in the bay was groupers and shrimp. Our income and daily catch rate started to decrease around 2005. From that time, the catches of these species started to decrease and we faced a serious problem with pufferfish. Also illegal fishing activities in the bay increased year by year. We then started to discuss the situation with the NGOs and universities. As Vahdet mentioned, six years ago the situation improved with NFZs. But if serious precautions for better management are not taken immediately, control and surveillance conservation measures will go back to level zero again. We want the relevant departments to put more effort into control mechanisms, both for marine and land based activities.

CASE STUDY:

Pescatourism: a fishing activity diversification at the service of the coast- The case of Taza National Park (Algeria)
Speaker:  Remi BELLIA, Ceres Consultant
Pescatourism has been developing in recent years, particularly in the Mediterranean. Algeria became the third State, after Italy and France, to adopt a regulation in this matter thanks to a pilot project conducted in Taza National Park. Pecatourism is above all a sustainable local development approach that tries to address the challenges linked to the preservation of both fishery resources and small-scale fisheries. To ensure the diversification of small-scale fisheries, to move towards a more quantitative and qualitative exploitation approach through new complementary activities with high added value, it is essential that the regulation of fisheries evolves. In Algeria, the National Park of Taza has been essential for the adoption of a decree on pescatourism. This example shows that national parks and MPAs have an essential role to play in sustainable maritime local development...

CASE STUDY:

Small scale fisheries as opportunity for income generation and livelihood diversification: can we make this work in the Mediterranean?
Speaker:  Giuseppe DI CARLO, WWF Mediterranean Marine Initiative
Artisanal or small-scale fisheries (SSF) in the Mediterranean employ over 250,000 fishers, represent 80% of the fishing fleet and account for about 20% of the total landing value. This sector remains extremely fragmented, poorly represented in the governance and decision-making processes, and lacks investment to improve the value of the catches and gear that are used. In the recent past however, this sector has received increased attention given its high potential to combine sustainable fisheries management and livelihood improvements. Best practices are presented here that demonstrate how small-scale fishers may adopt strategies to increase their income, protect resources, and promote social equity and participation in fisheries management.

CASE STUDY:

 MPAs for small-scale fishers: the process developed in Morocco
Speaker:  Alain JEUDY DE GRISSAC, IUCN, and fisher representive, Morocco (TBC)
In Morocco, a process has been developed with small-scale fishers taking into account their proposals for a stricter management of fisheries activities, the identification of options for supporting the process and the validation by the Fisheries Authorities of their zoning of the area. The main steps of this successful process will be presented.

CASE STUDY:

Fishers’ engagement as a key to successful management of small-scale fisheries: the example of Torre Guaceto MPA
Speaker:  Antonio DI FRANCO, CNRS - Nice Sophia Antipolis University
Guidelines to successfully manage SSF within MPAs ensuring both conservation and fisheries goals, and reaching a win-win scenario, are largely unavailable. To fill this gap, a large scale study (25 Mediterranean MPAs in 5 countries) was carried out by CNRS, highlighting that fishers involvement is one of the five features associated to a successful management of SSF within MPAs. Specific examples of a success story include the Torre Guaceto MPA (Italy) and the results of the MedPAN small project “Monitoring of sustainable traditional fisheries”.

CASE STUDY:

Fishermen responsible for their working area
Speaker:  Christian DECUGIS,  LIFE Platform
Small-scale fishers were the first managers of their fishing zones because with their small vessels, they could not change zones; so they have maintained their privileges. Today, there is much more pressure and more people involved in these areas, and it is necessary to develop management tools that take this new situation into account. Fishers had already regulated fisheries by closing either reproduction zones or periods, but these prohibitions applied only to themselves. Thanks to the MPAs, it is possible to manage all users and introduce an environmental dimension in these zones, but it is very important to associate the historical managers of these zones: the small-scale fishers..

CASE STUDY:

Promoting the role of women in artisanal fisheries in the context of MPAs
Speaker:  Rim HADDAOUI, Representative of the ‘Plateforme maghrébine de la pêche artisanale durable’
Considering the place of women and their timid contribution to sustainable artisanal fisheries - notably in food security, wealth creation, the fight against poverty - and this role is not sufficiently recognised or valued adequately in that field, a strategy supporting women is essential to enable them to develop capacities to integrate in the promotion of artisanal fisheries in the context of MPAs. This strategy is one of the missions of the Tunisian network of sustainable artisanal fishing.
Indeed, the situation of women is characterized by:    a system which is almost absent in terms of fishing activity, marketing and processing of products.
 1) little access to training to improve performance and income.
 2) non-participation in major decisions related to sustainable artisanal fisheries.
3) the lack of alternative work.

Interventions in favour of women within the framework of this strategy will aim on the one hand at equipping them to work better in order to strengthen their financial autonomy either individually or collectively, and on the other hand, at getting involved in the efficient management of artisanal fisheries, which includes ecological and socio-cultural components.